AIDS Retrospective Slideshow: A Timeline of the HIV / AIDS Epidemic
AIDS-related diseases have killed more than 32 million people since 1981. It is estimated that 1.1 million Americans are among the approximately 37 million people worldwide now living with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. How did we get here?
1900: From Monkeys to People
Between 1884 and 1924, somewhere in Central West Africa, a hunter killed a baboon. Some of the animal’s blood enters the hunter’s body, possibly through an open wound. Blood carries a virus that is harmless to monkeys but deadly to humans: HIV. The virus is spreading as colonial cities thrive, but other causes are to blame.
1981: Initial Crimes Recognized
In June, the CDC published a report from Los Angeles of five young gay men with life-threatening or life-threatening PCP pneumonia. Rarely unprecedented in people with healthy immune systems, PCP becomes one of the major so-called “opportunistic infections” that kill people with AIDS.
On July 4, the CDC reports that a rare skin cancer – Kaposi’s sarcoma, or KS – is killing young, healthy men in New York City and California. At the end of the year, 337 cases of immune deficiency were reported in the United States. Of those, 130 are dead.
1982: AIDS Gets a Name
The CDC called the new disease immune deficiency syndrome or AIDS. In addition to men who have sex with men, it is seen in people with hemophilia, a rare blood disorder. This leads scientists to believe that contagious blood-borne pathogens can spread the disease.
1983: Community Concerns
Women who have sex with infected men begin to contract AIDS. The CDC warns that the disease can be spread to the opposite sex. It also reports that HIV-positive women can transmit the disease to their babies during pregnancy or shortly after birth. Anxiety intensifies, along with the false rumors of “home distribution,” the idea that you can pass it on to people through daily touches. In New York, reports suggest that homeowners are evicting people living with AIDS.
1983: Scientists Detect HIV
Pasteur Institute researchers Luc Montagnier and Francoise Barre-Sinoussi, pictured here with team leader Jean-Claude Chermann, isolated the virus in the swollen lymph nodes of a person with AIDS. They called it the lymphadenopathy-associated virus, or LAV. Independently, UCSF researcher Jay Levy classifies ARVs – a virus related to AIDS. It was not until 1986 that everyone agreed to call the virus HIV: the human immunodeficiency virus.
1985: Hudson Dies, Hysteria Builds
Actor Rock Hudson, shown here in the 1985 Golden Globes starring fellow actors and AIDS beneficiaries Liza Minelli and Elizabeth Taylor, becomes the first major American to announce she has AIDS in July. She dies in October. Hudson leaves $ 250,000 to help create the American Foundation for AIDS Research (amfAR). Actress Elizabeth Taylor is the first chair of the organization.
In August, Ryan White, an Indiana teenager with AIDS, was turned away from his high school. The ensuing legal battle is drawing attention to this disease. In December, a Los Angeles Times poll states that the vast majority of Americans prefer to be isolated from people living with AIDS.
1985: Examination Begins
In March, the FDA approved ELISA, the first blood test for HIV. Blood banks began testing donations.
About a month later, the first International AIDS Conference took place in Atlanta.
In December, Dwight Burk died of 20-month-old AIDS. He is believed to be the first hemophiliac baby to be born with this condition. His father, Patrick, contracted the disease through routine blood clots. Before he knew it, he passed it on to his wife, Lauren, who became pregnant with Dwight.
1986: Ryan White Returns to School
In April, after 10 months of legal battle, a judge allowed Ryan White to return to school, ruling that he did not pose a health threat to his fellow students.
1987: Princess Diana Comes Out
In April, at the opening of an HIV / AIDS unit at London’s Middlesex Hospital, Princess Diana – without gloves – shook hands with someone with AIDS. At the time, some believed that the disease could be spread by contact.
1987: ACT UP Forms, Make an Impact
ACT UP forms against AZT cost $ 10,000 per year. Accept the motto, “PEACE = DEATH. A year later, the group began its stay at FDA headquarters protesting the slow pace of approving HIV / AIDS treatment. More than 1,000 people arrived. Police arrested 176 of them. Eight days later, the FDA announces the regulatory process.
1987: Liberty Dies
The Emmy-winning pianist dies at his home at the age of 67. Her doctor reports the cause of death as a heart attack, but the district orders a post-mortem. It cites AIDS-related illness as the cause. This debate creates a national debate about the privacy of people with AIDS.
1988: World AIDS Day
The World Health Organization celebrates World Aids Day on December 1. It is the first day of global health awareness. The event continues today, designed to show support for those living with the disease and to remember those who have died from it.
1991: AIDS Strikes the Home
On November 7, Los Angeles Lakers star Ervin “Magic” Johnson announced he was HIV-positive and would retire from basketball.
Two and a half weeks later, on November 24, Freddy Mercury, the lead singer of the rock Queen’s band, died of bronchial pneumonia, a complication of AIDS. Both deaths raise awareness of the disease and the different ways it spreads.
1993: Message Releases
AIDS and HIV awareness measures take another step:
President Clinton presents the White House Office for National AIDS Policy.
ACT UP and Benetton put on a big condom at the Place de la Concorde in Paris to show the importance of safe sex.
The play Angels in America wins the Pulitzer Prize for Drama.
Tom Hanks starred in the film Philadelphia, about a lawyer with AIDS. It is the first Hollywood film with a large budget about this disease.
1994: The Real World
Activist Pedro Zamora (pictured right) becomes a member of the cast for MTV’s third season of The Real World. One day after the end of the season, she died of AIDS at the age of 22.
Later that year, the FDA approved the first oral HIV test.
Active antiretroviral treatment, or HAART, can reduce the viral load to undetectable levels. Hope is growing when AIDS researcher David Ho, MD, suggests that treatment can eradicate HIV from the body. You are wrong. Researchers later discovered that HIV hides in inactive cells. But AIDS deaths in the U.S. dropped by more than 40%.
1998-2000: Too Many Pills
Awareness grows that HAART has serious side effects. Treatment failure highlights the need for new, more powerful drugs. In the years that follow, the FDA approves new categories of drugs that make HIV treatment safer, easier, and more effective. But ARVs still do not cure AIDS.
2001-2002: Global Problem Growing
AIDS is the leading cause of death in the world for people aged 15 to 59.
UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan makes recommendations to the Global Fund to Fight HIV / AIDS, TB, and Malaria. The purpose of the Global Fund is to collect, manage, and distribute funds for the fight against HIV and AIDS.
Treatment is not yet available for most people living with HIV. Only 1% of the 4.1 million HIV-positive people in sub-Saharan Africa are receiving antiretroviral treatment.
2003: President Bush Involves
President Bush announces the Presidential $ 15 billion AIDS Relief Emergency Plan. Critics play a part in preventing excessive emphasis on self-control or abstaining from sex. But the proposal provides much-needed funding for HIV / AIDS treatment in 15 countries.
2006-2007: Does Therapy Work?
Researchers say HIV treatment has been shown to extend life by 24 years – at $ 618,900.
At the time, Merck’s HIV vaccine failed in clinical trials. The latest in a long list of failures. But new vaccines continue to flow through the development pipeline.
As a precautionary measure, UNAIDS recommends adult circumcision after it has been found to reduce the spread of HIV from women to men by half in common areas.
2008: Real Testing
The CDC states that HIV in the United States is far more widespread than previously thought. 1.1 million people have been infected with the virus, an increase of 11% over the past five years. New rates of HIV infection are rising in men who have sex with men.
At that time, Luc Montagnier and Francoise Barre-Sinoussi received the Nobel Prize in medicine for the discovery of the virus.
2012: PrEP Arrives
The FDA approves pre-exposure prophylaxis or PrEP. A daily pill that people at high risk of HIV can use to reduce their chances of getting the virus. Studies show that if taken daily, PrEP reduces the risk of getting HIV sexually by about 99% and reduces the risk of getting it in injections by about 74%.
A few weeks before PrEP approval, the FDA also approved the first HIV test at home.
In March, the first well-documented case of an HIV-positive child who appeared to be cured of HIV came to light. The baby, known as “The Mississippi Baby,” begins antiretroviral treatment at birth and shows no signs or symptoms of the virus. One year later, after a child has not shown any signs of HIV for more than 2 years, the virus returns. This encourages further research into how the virus behaves differently in children and adults.
2016-2017: New Guidelines; inmates Sponsor PrEP
In 2016, the CDC is reviewing treatment recommendations for nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis (nPEP), or treatment, for sexually transmitted HIV, drug use, or any other occupational-related method. The review included drugs that were not available when the guidelines first came out in 2005.
In January 2017, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation was investing $ 140 million in developing a tumor that could provide regular PrEP treatment for people living with HIV.
2019: History Installation
On March 25, an HIV-positive donor presents the HIV-positive recipient with a kidney for the first time in the United States. Nina Martinez, 35, donates her kidney to an unknown recipient. The process took place at Johns Hopkins.
Donations have not been possible for someone with HIV for fear that the virus could make kidney disease more dangerous. But new antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) help a patient to stay healthy throughout life.
2020: Plan for the Long Term
You may need to reconsider how you’re thinking about your future. “I talk to people with HIV who say, ‘I didn’t expect to live to middle age, but now I’m middle-aged and I’m probably going to live another 30 years,'” Hare says. This adjustment can be a challenge.
People with HIV tend to feel more isolated than other older adults as they age. You may be dealing with strained family ties or embarrassment about your condition. Important people in your life may have died or moved away.
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